ROBOGRAPH GLOSSARY OF TERMS
By Mark Lindquist
The creation of (analog/digital) Images, in or on (varietal) media, with/by recording device(s), by robotic means, (including remote, end-effector, jig-held, or technically evolved hand-held means).
The recording, and/or display of image information (light, hysteresis, etc. through analog or digital devices/means).
An image created by any means of image recording technology, i.e. traditional photography, or digital imaging, or engraving (graphical rerecording) done (largely) by remote control, i.e., through the use of a sequence initiating device, such as a button, relay, integrated circuit, wireless transfer switching mechanisms, including all historical photographic exposure systems, with the intent of capturing (crafting or creating) an image for purposes of artistic, documentary or scientific means or expression, and created for the purposes of capturing or documenting motion of:
The image may exist in or on any medium (film, transparency, paper or related media such as canvas, linen, parchment, wood, clay, etc.etc.,) or as a digital file.
The method of capture implies that motion (impulsion) is inherent in the process through:
OBJECT (SUBJECT / OBJECT)
MOTION OF BOTH RECORDING DEVICE AND SUBJECT
Method of capture implies remote or robotic control.
Remote, meaning that the recording device is held by mechanical or non-mechanical means:
Production robots mimicked human work/object scenarios to achieve repetitive process and quality control. Similarly, now, humans mimic robots in repetitive process and quality control.
Repetitive process in the manufacture of art and/or craft mimics robotics in 20th, and 21st Century making endeavor.
RECORDING DEVICE | RECORDING METHOD | RECORDING
REPETITIVE MOTION: (of Recording Device) (see replication) (see reiteration)
Images captured through repetitive / duplicative process
Images captured through repetitive / non-duplicative process
Images captured through a duplicative process involving exact replication under precision computer numeric control through programmed execution. (Programmed Capture using Robotic Arm)
Images captured through a non-duplicative process involving sequential capturing under precision remote, non-programmed process involving jigs, or highly developed bracing techniques to assist in precision capture.
A roboticist, is someone who designs, builds, programs, and experiments with robots.
Roboticists develop mechanical devices that can move by themselves, whose motion is modeled, planned, sensed, actuated and controlled, and whose motion behavior can be influenced by the programmed task as well as by the environment in which the robot device operates. Robots are called “intelligent” if they succeed in moving in safe interaction with an unstructured environment, while autonomously achieving their specified tasks.
SEE: The Robotics WEBook
Dumb Robot: ("Human-Machine Interfaces") a mechanical system that includes human involvement within the loop, i.e., a remote controlled robot used for specific tasks, repetitive or precision in nature, to assist in the completion of tasks. Conversely; human activity that includes mechanical means or devices within the performance of activity.
According to this definition of (dumb robot) both a car and driver are part of a dumb-robotic system. The car would be a dumb-robot being controlled by human involvement, and/or the human would be a dumb-robot, employing the mechanical device (car) in order to perform a task (driving). In this sense, the robot (car) aids in the completion or a repetitive task (moving objects) in a precise manner (speed, safety, comfort) in a symbiotic relationship. The car does not drive itself (yet), and the human is not able to move through time and space precisely, (yet), without the aid of the vehicle.
Thus in photography, the camera accomplishes specific
tasks through electromechanical means: It internally actuates a shutter
mechanism either (externally) through pushing a shutter button that
actuates the shutter for exposure, and it may accomplish the task of
capturing an image with human involvement in the loop, or remotely,
programmed or unprogrammed, tethered to a computer or intervalometer to
accomplish the exposure. If the camera is actuated, tethered to a
computer, programmed to execute specific repetitive tasks (i.e. make a
certain number of shutter actuations in a certain sequence for a certain
amount of time, etc.,) and is controlled by the program of the computer,
the process would be robotic, in that the execution of the task was
automated, carried out with a degree of "native intelligence", where after
programming, human involvement was no longer required. When a human
(dumb-robot) actuates exposure through the means of a remote control,
(wired, or wireless), the process becomes innately dumb-robtical in that
the human/machine symbiosis exists. The camera is a dumb-robot component,
the operator is a dumb-robot component: together their relationship is
"dumb-robotical", or bio-robotical (to imply biological/mechanical
mechanism [HMI]), or robomimical (mimicking a purely autonomous robotical
activity) at the very least human and machine become counterparts.
Robomimical behavior is most apparent in repetitive task human
involvement, whereby activity becomes 1) learned, 2) practiced, 3) skilled
4) mastered 5) transcendent. In transaction of mundane tasks, such as
manufacturing, robotic systems excel. In certain aspects of manufacturing,
humans excel, where robots fail. In art, the missing component of
roboticism is nuance, or original expression. A musician may perform and
the performance may be recorded and played back exactly, but rarely, if
ever, can the human perform the same piece again, exactly as before, and
rarely, if ever, can the recorder (robotic device) come up with an
equivalent masterpiece of original expression, similar to what the maestro
Jidoka is also used when individual people encounter a problem at their work station. They are responsible for correcting the problem - if they cannot, they should stop the line rather than let the defective part do.
The principle was first used by Sakichi Toyoda at the beginning of the 20th century when he invented a loom which stopped when the thread broke.
ANIMATION is the rapid display of a sequence of images of 2-D artwork or model positions in order to create an illusion of movement.
INSTRUMENTATION: use of instruments (devices) for observation, measurement, or control.
ACTUATION (implies) human action or human activity > to put into mechanical action or motion - to move to action (see http://www.wordreference.com/definition/actuation), (http://www.m-w.com/cgi-bin/dictionary?book=Dictionary&va=actuation)
REPLICATION: (see Merriam Webster 4: "performance of an experiment or procedure more than once")
SIMULATION: (see Merriam Webster - 3a: "the imitative representation of the functioning of one system or process by means of the functioning of another <a computer simulation of an industrial process> b : examination of a problem often not subject to direct experimentation by means of a simulating device) (see mimicry)"
MIMICRY: (see Merriam Webster 1a, and 2:
1 a : an instance of mimicking b : the action, practice, or art of mimicking
2 : a superficial resemblance of one organism to another or to natural objects among which it lives that secures it a selective advantage (as protection from predation)
ROBOMIMICAL (neolog/attributed to Mark Lindquist) : Concomitant* Human/Machine involvement combined in a symbiotic relationship of simulation/replication, where the human employs mastery of movement techniques in order to accomplish transcendent goals in making art / objects, etc., while using an electromechanical device to achieve those ends.
*See: Websters: (2) concomitant
:something that accompanies or is collaterally connected with something else : ACCOMPANIMENT
(Note: in the traditional sense of "instrumentation" (using an instrument to perform artistic acts), i.e., a figure skater cannot accomplish the feats of skating art/craft without the use of skates or blades.
The figure skater might be a glorified dancer, gymnast, etc., were it not for the device (skates) but without the "gadget" simply could not achieve glorious heights of a variety of spins that result from the physics unleashed through the process of applied motion within that specialized process. An electric guitarist cannot accomplish feedback or other process specific effects with an electric guitar without the use of an amp and other electronic accessories. I contend that in the modern world any and all human/electromechanical counterpart / complementary involvement is Robomimical, given numerous electro magnetic forces (EMF) that enter in that effect outcome. As we use devices powered by electromagnetic energy (EMF's) we enter into a specialized state of being that is distinctly different from a lesser charged simpler use of "tool". Being plugged in, we partake of the realm of metaphysics, the realm of the mysterious that we mostly don't understand, yet employ to our benefit.
We think of a car as just a car, yet it is a most
sophisticated machine that moves elegantly with us and we with it, as we
are in tandem; we are as though schools of fish or flocks of birds (see
swarms, Synchronization, flocking process, Tamas Vicsec (http://www.scienceblog.com/community/older/1998/A/199800332.html
), Navier-Stokes equation, the basic equation that describes fluid motion.
THE PHYSICS OF FLOCKING. "...Studying one of the more remarkable examples of collective behavior, scientists at IBM and the University of Oregon have developed a physics- based theory of how a group of birds manages to move together as a single unit, even if the individual birds make frequent misjudgments and can only see an extremely small fraction of the other birds in the flock. In their model, the researchers capitalized on similarities between certain features of flock motion and several phenomena in physics. Like a group of tiny bar magnets, the birds in the flocking model line themselves up in the same direction by interacting with their closest neighbors. Like dust particles in a fluid, nearby birds may soon find themselves far apart. Like parcels of hot material spreading their heat through the process of convection, birds spread information about the direction which they are moving by circulating themselves through the flock. By incorporating the well-developed mathematical descriptions of these processes in the model, and plugging in typical values of such parameters as how fast real flocks move in the air, Tu and Toner came up with realistic predictions of such things as how densely the birds are packed together in certain situations and how this density fluctuates. (John Toner and Yuhai Tu, Physical Review E, October 1998; more at www.aip.org/physnews/preview)…” (http://www.physicist.org/pnu/1998/split/pnu395-2.htm)
SEE ALSO: IGERT 499 Study Group
Swarming, Flocking, and Applications to Multi-Robot Systems
Electromagnetic Field: is a physical field that is produced by electrically charged objects and which affects the behavior of charged objects in the vicinity of the field. The electromagnetic field extends indefinitely throughout space and describes the electromagnetic interaction, one of the four fundamental forces of nature. The field can be viewed as the combination of an electric field and a magnetic field. The electric field is produced by stationary charges, and the magnetic field by moving charges (currents); these two are often described as the sources of the field. The way in which charges and currents interact with the electromagnetic field is described by Maxwell's equations and the Lorentz Force Law. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_field)
Electromotive Force: (emf) is the amount of energy gained per unit charge that passes through a device in the opposite direction to the electric field existing across that device. It is measured in volts. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromotive_force)
HYSTERISIS: The lagging of an effect behind its cause, as when the change in magnetism of a body lags behind changes in the magnetic field.
"...The lag between making a change, such as increasing or decreasing power, and the response or effect of that change. It typically refers to turn-on and turn-off points in electrical, electronic and mechanical systems. For example, if a thermostat set for 70 degrees turns on when the temperature reaches 68 and turns off at 72, the hysteresis is the range from 68 to 72..."
From wikpedia: "...Hysteresis phenomena occur in magnetic and ferromagnetic materials, as well as in the elastic and electromagnetic behavior of materials, in which a lag occurs between the application and the removal of a force or field and its subsequent effect. Electric hysteresis occurs when applying a varying electric field, and elastic hysteresis occurs in response to a varying force. The term "hysteresis" is sometimes used in other fields, such as economics or biology. In such cases it describes a memory or lagging effect in which the order of previous events can influence the order of subsequent events...."
CYBORG: see (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyborg)
According to some definitions of the term, the metaphysical and physical attachments humanity has with even the most basic technologies have already made us cyborgs. In a typical example, a human fitted with a heart pacemaker or an insulin pump (if the person has diabetes) might be considered a cyborg, since these mechanical parts enhance the body's "natural" mechanisms through synthetic feedback mechanisms. Some theorists cite such modifications as contact lenses, hearing aids, or intraocular lenses as examples of fitting humans with technology to enhance their biological capabilities; however, these modifications are no more cybernetic than would be a pen, a wooden leg, or the spears used by chimps to hunt vertebrates. Cochlear implants that combine mechanical modification with any kind of feedback response are more accurately cyborg enhancements.
The prefix "cyber" is also used to address human-technology mixtures in the abstract. This includes artifacts that may not popularly be considered technology. Pen and paper, for example, as well as speech, language. Augmented with these technologies, and connected in communication with people in other times and places, a person becomes capable of much more than they were before. This is like computers, which gain power by using Internet protocols to connect with other computers. Cybernetic technologies include highways, pipes, electrical wiring, buildings, electrical plants, libraries, and other infrastructure that we hardly notice, but which are critical parts of the cybernetics that we work within.
PANNING: Panning refers to the horizontal movement or rotation of a film or video camera, or the scanning of a subject horizontally on video or a display device.
In photography, the panning technique is used to suggest fast motion, and bring out foreground from background. In photographic pictures it is usually noted by a foreground subject in action appearing still (i.e. a runner frozen in mid-stride) while the background is streaked and/or skewed in the apparently opposite direction of the subject's travel. (http://www.answers.com/topic/panning-camera)
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